Strip mining, which involves the removal of a long strip of overlying rock and soil, is most commonly used to mine coal in the United States, as it is less labor-intensive and generally reaps more coal than underground mining. That would cause more problems like making the area vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Also, companies are required to reclaim any land they use for strip mining. The concepts of flexibility as understood in manufacturing are introduced and particular concepts for flexible strip mining systems FSMS are developed. Ideology and impacts on economic interests of groups have been shown to be key determinants of government intervention in petroleum Kalt, , coal Kalt, and natural gas Kalt and Leone, Stark comparison between strip-mined land and untouched land in background.
Any excess overburden that remains after the mined area is completely backfilled Eastern mines generally have substantial excess spoil is deposited in a fill. Scott's current company has three divisions: Contour mining makes cuts on the slope where the coal seam is located, to remove first the overburden and then the coal itself. When employing any of these methodologies, layoffs are neither the objective nor the solution. In contrast to its national effects, SMCRA appears to produce substantial improvements in resource allocation in certain regions of the country. Typically, several different pits, at various stages of development or reclamation, are being worked at any given time on a single site. The Strip Mining Handbook.
Strip Mining: CQR
Once the contour operator reaches the point where the height of the highwall makes it uneconomical to remove further overburden, the operator may choose to extract further coal, before beginning reclamation, by drilling into the face of the highwall with a mining auger. Wildlife often suffers severely as a result of strip mining. Strip mining eliminates existing vegetation and alters the soil profile , or the natural soil layers. This publication is from a journal that may support self archiving. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS , SMCRA effectively protects endangered species through provisions designed to minimize direct impacts on wildlife  -- but only when properly enforced. Parkinson's Law ensures that any time potentially saved by using and frequently by eliminating workarounds has long since been filled with other activities. Frameworks for State Energy Policy:
The harmful effects of valley fills are discussed further under the section on mountaintop removal. Fewer than twenty slope movements have been reported out of the more than 6, fills built from to Overburden from adjacent cuts is used to fill previous cuts. Thus, a pH of 3 describes a liquid that is 10 times as acidic as a liquid with a pH of 4. As our journey continues in , we venture into reforesting the aftermath of a practice that had been going on for much longer than 22 years — and a venture that is still equally important today, as evidenced by both past and present Global ReLeaf work.